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posted on 01.22.10

Doctorate Degrees in the United Kingdom, Australia, 

India and certain other countries carry more 

prestige. The Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) is issued 

on the basis of a long record of research and

publication. 



The Doctorate Degree in Literature is awarded to 

candidates whose record of published work and 

research shows exceptional ability and originality.  

 

The word “Philosophy” means different things to 

different people. Philosophy did not begin with

Aristotle, but with the historiography of Philosophy

itself. Aristotle offers only a classification 

in accordance with the structure of his system 

defined in four causes. They are: The Material 

Cause, The Efficient Cause. The Formal Cause

and the Final Cause. 



Here is a simple illustration as to what he had

in mind - “When a mother is baking cookies, the 

material causes refer to ingredients. The Efficient

Cause is her as the cook while the recipe itself is 

the Formal Cause.  The Satisfaction from her husband and

children is the Final Cause.” 

 

A scientific understanding of the universe demands

an inquiry into the operation of the world of 

causes involving each of those criteria. 



-Daniel Lizzama, Litt.D  

 


 


 

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