After 1960, the Constructivist and Expressionist notions that art represented either the order of the outside world or the inner essence of the artist, withered under critical scrutiny. New artists such as Swiss sculptor Jean Tinguely began to concentrate on technology and urban society. His "kinetic
A perpetual innovator who indelibly altered the nature of his craft, French director Jean-Luc Godard stood at the forefront of the French New Wave, the late-1950s movement that included Fran'ois Truffaut, Eric Rohmer, and other former film critics from the journal Cahiers du Cinema who refracted the
Credited as a founding father of Pop, Minimalism, and Conceptual art, Jasper Johns was one of the first painters to use everyday objects and commonplace images in his art, thus paving the way for artists like Warhol and Oldenburg.
Beginning in the mid-'50s, Johns painted canvases that depict, or s
According to Frank Gehry, architecture is intimately linked with social structure and purpose. He insists that his buildings address the context and culture of their particular sites, as well as provide a comfortable, stimulating experience to their occupants. Gehry also believes that architecture is